Researchers from the University of Toronto and the University of Padova have found that the association between heavy coffee consumption and impaired kidney function relies on common genetic mutations.
In one study, researchers found that heavy coffee drinkers with a variant of the CYP1A2 gene that slows down the metabolism of caffeine suffered more kidney dysfunction than other heavy coffee drinkers with different versions of the gene. markers were almost three times higher. Allows for faster caffeine metabolism.
“We believe fast metabolizers can clear caffeine from their systems more efficiently, avoiding the harmful accumulation of caffeine.” Ahmed El Sohemi, Professor of Nutritional Sciences, University of T Temati School of Medicine. “These individual differences in caffeine metabolism help explain why previous studies on coffee and kidney disease have been inconsistent.”
the study, It was published in the magazine JAMA network openthe design was observational and included data from more than 1000 participants in Italy, collected over a decade by Professor Paolo Palatini and his colleagues at the University of Padova.
Some previous studies have found that caffeine is associated with renal dysfunction and failure, while others have found that coffee may prevent kidney disease. Few have examined whether individual genetic differences explain these positive or negative associations.
The amount of caffeine a person consumes also seems to matter. In the current study, the risk of kidney dysfunction was significant only in people who drank three or more cups of coffee a day (equivalent to approximately 300 mg of Italian espresso). For healthy adults, we recommend no more than 400 mg per day.
The researchers also found that the prevalence of CYP1A2 gene variants that slow caffeine metabolism in people was similar in both the study group and the general population, around 50%.
Many companies and clinics now include CYP1A2 in their individual genetic tests. This is because different versions of the gene may influence the risk of several conditions associated with caffeine consumption.
“Heart disease, pre-diabetes, and hypertension are all affected by variations in CYP1A2, which can also alter athletic performance. Sarah Madavi, the lead author of this study and a former postdoctoral fellow in El-Sohemy’s lab. “We are now confident that whether coffee is detrimental to kidney health depends in part on CYP1A2.”
Researchers investigated three markers of renal dysfunction. hyperfiltration (high renal glomerular filtration rate); and hypertension.
It is estimated that the prevalence of kidney disease in Canada is about 13%, with most cases going undiagnosed. Kidney disease is the leading cause of death worldwide.
“Hopefully, this study will raise awareness about the importance of personalized nutritional recommendations based on individual genetic makeup.” This is an exciting area of research and clinical practice with a very bright future. “
El-Sohemy is the founder and chief scientific officer of Nutrigenix Inc., which provides genetic testing for personalized nutrition, including the CYP1A2 gene and caffeine metabolism.