Overview: A new study links daily diet and mortality risk. Those over the age of 40 who eat one meal a day have a higher risk of death. Those who skip breakfast have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease-related death, and those whose meal interval is less than 4.5 hours have a higher risk of death.
Eating just one meal a day is associated with an increased risk of death among American adults over the age of 40, a new study has found. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Skipping breakfast increases the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, and skipping lunch and dinner increases the risk of all-cause mortality.
Even people who eat three meals a day have an increased risk of all-cause mortality if they eat two consecutive meals less than 4.5 hours apart.
“At a time when intermittent fasting is widely touted as a solution for weight loss, metabolic health, and disease prevention, our research is important for the majority of American adults who eat fewer than three meals each day. Our research found that people who ate only one meal a day were more likely to die than those who ate more.
Among them, participants who skip breakfast are more likely to develop fatal cardiovascular disease, and those who skip lunch or dinner have an increased risk of death from all causes.” University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis . Tennessee, USA. “Based on these findings, we recommend eating at least two to three spread meals throughout the day.”
Researchers analyzed data from a cohort of over 24,000 American adults age 40 and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1999 and 2014. , NHANES collects a wide range of health-related data to assess diet, nutritional status, general health status, medical history, and health behaviors every two years.
The circumstances and causes of the 4,175 deaths identified in this group were ascertained from the NHANES public link death files. Investigators observed many common characteristics among participants who ate less than three meals a day (approximately 40% of respondents). Drink more alcohol, have food instability, eat less nutritious foods, snack more, and reduce your overall energy intake.
“Our results are significant even after adjusting for diet and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity level, energy intake, diet quality) and food insecurity,” said the study’s senior investigator. said Wei Bao, MD, Ph.D. Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa School of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa, USA. he said: Nonetheless, what we observed has implications for metabolism. “
Dr. Bao explained that skipping meals usually means taking in a larger energy load at once, which can exacerbate the burden of glucose metabolic regulation and lead to subsequent metabolic slowdowns. This could also explain the association between short meal intervals and mortality. Shorter times between meals result in a higher energy load for a given period.
Dr. Bao commented as follows.
Meal frequency, skips, and intervals will be reviewed in the 2020-2025 United States because the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee “failed to find sufficient evidence to summarize the evidence between meal frequency and health.” It was not addressed in the Dietary Guidelines for Humans.
Previous dietary studies and dietary guidelines for Americans have focused primarily on dietary components and food combinations.
About this diet research news
Original research: open access.
“Meal skipping and short meal intervals are associated with increased risk of death from all-cause and cardiovascular disease in US adultsBy Yambo Sang et al. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Meal skipping and short meal intervals are associated with increased risk of death from all-cause and cardiovascular disease in US adults
Previous dietary studies and current dietary guidelines focus primarily on dietary intake and eating patterns. Little is known about the relationship between feeding behaviors such as meal frequency, skipping and intervals and mortality.
The aim was to examine the association between meal frequency, skipping, and intervals and mortality from all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
This was a prospective study.
A total of 24,011 adults (ages 40 and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey from 1999 to 2014 were included in this study. Eating behavior was assessed using a 24-hour recall. Deaths and their underlying causes were confirmed by linking death records up to December 31, 2015.
Main outcome measures
Outcomes were all-cause mortality and CVD mortality.
Statistical analysis performed
Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and CVD mortality.
During 185,398 person-years of follow-up, 4,175 deaths occurred, including 878 cardiovascular deaths. Most participants said he ate three times a day. Multivariate-adjusted HRs for participants eating one meal per day compared with participants eating three meals a day were 1.30 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.64) for all-cause mortality and 1.83 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.64) for CVD mortality. CI 1.26 to 2.65). Participants who skipped breakfast had a multivariate-adjusted HR of 1.40 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.78) for CVD mortality compared with those who did not. The multivariate-adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 1.12 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.24) for skipping lunch and 1.16 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.32) for skipping dinner compared with those who did not. ) was. Among participants eating three meals a day, the multivariate-adjusted HR for participants with an average interval between two adjacent meals of 4.5 hours or less was 1.17 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.32) for all-cause mortality, 4.6 to 5.5 hours compared to participants with meal intervals.
In this large, prospective study of US adults age 40 and older, eating one meal per day was associated with increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. Skipping breakfast increased the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, and skipping lunch and dinner increased the risk of all-cause mortality. Among participants who ate three meals a day, all-cause mortality was higher when the interval between two adjacent meals was 4.5 hours or less.