Home Science SPY-NACO Imaging Survey for Planets around Young stars. The Demographics of Forming Planets Embedded in Protoplanetary Disks

SPY-NACO Imaging Survey for Planets around Young stars. The Demographics of Forming Planets Embedded in Protoplanetary Disks

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We present a statistical analysis of a subsample of 45 young stars surrounded by a protoplanetary disk (PPD). This is the largest image survey to date uniquely focused on his PPD.

Our goal is to search for young formation mates embedded in the disc material and limit their incidence in relation to the formation mechanism. A point-spread function subtraction method based on principal component analysis was used to reveal young mates forming in the disc. We calculated the detection limit of the dataset and adopted the blackbody model to derive an upper limit of possible planet-forming temperatures. We then used Monte Carlo simulations to limit the number of forming gas giant mates and compared the results with different types of formation scenarios.

Our data reveal 12 known companions, plus a new binary system (HD38120) and a recently identified trinary system containing an orbiting brown dwarf companion (HD101412). In addition, we detected signals from 17 discs, two of which (HD72106 and TCrA) were imaged for the first time. A median detection limit of L =15.4 mag was reached at 2.0 arcsec. This was used to investigate the temperature of a possible embedded molded companion.can limit the occurrence of planet formations with semimajor radius a [20 – 500] au and teff [600 – 3000] K, consistent with statistical results obtained for more evolved systems from other direct imaging studies.

The NaCo-ISPY data confirm that massive bright planets that accrete at a high rate are rare. More powerful instruments with better sensitivity in the near-to-mid-infrared may be needed to reveal the abundance of forming planets shaping the observed substructure of the disk.

Gabriele Cugno, Timothy D. Pearce, Ralf Launhardt, Markus. J. Bonse, Jie. Ma, Thomas Henning, Andreas Quirrenbach, Damien Ségransan, Elisabeth C. Matthews, Sascha P. Quanz, Grant M. Kennedy, André Müller, Sabine Reffert, Emily L. Rickman

Comments: Page 25, Figure 16, Table 3, Accepted by A&A
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Solar and Star Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)
Quoted as: arXiv:2211.15434 [astro-ph.EP] (or arXiv:2211.15434v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)
https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2211.15434
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Submission history
From: Gabriele Cuño
[v1] Mon, Nov 28, 2022 15:20:23 UTC (3,116 KB)
https://arxiv.org/abs/2211.15434
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