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Study uncovers how bacteria use ancient mechanisms to self-repair

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) the sodium-swimming strain to Na+ It was passaged repeatedly in LB (~100 mM). [Na<sup>+</sup>]) or K+LB (~15 mM [Na<sup>+</sup>]) plate. Flares representing potentially highly motile variants were passaged and sent for sequencing. () Edited E.Escherichia coli Strain Pots and Potsλ, E. .coli RP437 by no-SCAR and λ-Red recombineering, respectively, were passaged on soft agar (background color, yellow: Na+; Blue: K+). ) over 18 days, eight strains (L1 to L8) were selected for further investigation. Swimming performance in the presence of high or low sodium is indicated by yellow or blue rings, respectively, corresponding to the swimming size of the swim plate (C). K.+ Lack of motility in soft agar is represented by blue dots showing only colony growth. K.+ Colonies that did not move on the plate were confirmed after further culturing (Fig. S3C). Red and boxed lineage member labels indicate the availability of WGS and RNA-seq data (including Pot). SNPs identified in association with the Pots reference genome are annotated alongside their respective phylogenetic members and in Table S1. pomA When potB Highlighted genes other than: pitA (Metal phosphate: H+ symporter),flgL (flagellar hook-filament binding protein 2),fliM (flagellar motor switch protein),cdsA (cardiolipin-diglyceride synthase),icd (isocitrate dehydrogenase), and rrsG (16S. ribosomal RNA). Scale bar, 10 mm. (C.) Summary of directed evolution experiments. Na+ (left) and K+ (Right) Soft agar plates (except RP437) inoculated with 1 μl aliquots of glycerol stocks of each strain shown in (A) arranged in the same order as in (A). (D.) across 82 species motB phylogeny and reconstruction of ancestry at the G20 site. G20 is Vibrio preserved in the genus. clade. The complete phylogeny is shown in the figure. S14. Credits: scientific progress (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abq2492″ width=”800″ height=”530″/>

Directed evolution of the flagellar motor. (a) sodium-swimming strains were repeatedly passaged with either Na.+LB (~100mM [Na+]) or K+LB (~15 mM [Na+]) plate. Flares representing potentially highly motile variants were passaged and sent for sequencing. (B.) Edited Escherichia coli stock pots and potsλobtained from Escherichia coli RP437 by no-SCAR and λ-Red recombineering, respectively, in soft agar (colored background, yellow: Na+; Blue: K+) over 18 days, eight strains (L1 to L8) were selected for further investigation. Swimming performance in the presence of high or low sodium is indicated by yellow or blue rings, respectively, corresponding to the swimming size of the swim plate (C). Lack of K motility+ Soft agar is represented by blue dots showing only colony growth. Colonies that did not move with K+ Plates were confirmed with further incubation (Fig. S3C). Red and boxed lineage member labels indicate the availability of WGS and RNA-seq data (including Pot). SNPs identified in association with the Pots reference genome are annotated alongside their respective phylogenetic members and in Table S1.highlighted genes other than Poma When pot B: pita (Metal phosphate: H+ symporter), flgL (flagellar hook-filament binding protein 2), flim (flagellar motor switch protein), cdsA (cardiolipin diglyceride synthase), icd (isocitrate dehydrogenase), and rrsG (16S. ribosomal RNA). Scale bar, 10 mm. (Ha) Summary of directed evolution experiments.vegetable+ (left) and K+ (Right) Soft agar plates inoculated with 1 μl aliquots of glycerol stocks of each strain shown in (A) (except RP437) and arranged in the same order as in (A). (D.) strains motB Over 82 species by ancestral rearrangements at the G20 site. G20 is vibrio seed. clade. The complete phylogeny is shown in the figure. S14. Credits: scientific progress (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abq2492

A new study led by scientists at UNSW Sydney reveals how nature’s oldest wheels, which reside inside bacteria, can self-repair when faced with difficult situations.

Findings released today scientific progressshows how the ancient motors that power flagellum-swimming ability work bacteria—It can also help these tiny organisms adapt to conditions that impair their motility.

Bacteria are one of the oldest organisms on Earth. They are small single-celled organisms and are found in all habitats, including the human body. bacterial cell than human cells.

Being able to swim is crucial to how bacteria survive and spread. However, little is known about how the motors that drive their movements help organisms adapt to hostile environments.

Researchers from the Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences are the first in the world to modify flagellar motors using CRISPR gene editing technology. They used synthetic biology techniques to engineer sodium motors onto their genomes to create sodium-driven swimming bacteria. They then tested and tracked the bacteria’s ability to adapt when the environment became sodium deficient.

Sodium is an ion, so it has an electric charge. It is this charge that powers the flagellar motor through the stator or ion channels.

The team found that the stator could quickly self-repair the flagellar motor and restore movement. These discoveries could lead to new advances throughout the fields of biology and medicine.

“We showed that Environmental changes can cause ion channel to respond quickly,” said lead author of the paper, Dr. Pietro Ridone.

“So CRISPR editing also quickly reverts, allowing the flagellar motor to evolve and then regulate itself,” says Dr. Ridone.

“The fact that we have seen direct mutations in the stator is surprising and will also inspire many of our future research projects in this area.”

force of molecular machines

of human body It contains about 10,000 types of molecular machines, powering a variety of biological functions, from energy conversion to motion.

Bacterial motor technology is far beyond what humans can engineer at the nanoscale. A grain of sand he is a million times smaller, can be built and spins up to five times faster than an F1 engine.

“The motor that powers bacterial swimming is a marvel of nanotechnology,” said Associate Professor Matthew Baker, co-author of the paper. “It is an absolute representative offspring of an ancient and highly sophisticated molecular machinery.”

A/Prof. Baker says the findings will help us better understand the origin of molecular motors—how they come together and how they adapt—in mechanistic detail.

“These ancient parts are a powerful system for studying not only the origin and evolution of motility, but evolution in general.”

A/Prof.Baker says the findings inform how synthetic biology Useful for creating new molecular motors. The findings may also have applications in understanding antimicrobial resistance and disease virulence.

“By shining a light on the ancient history of life, we can gain the knowledge to create tools that will help make the future better,” said A/Prof. Baker. “It could also lead to insights into how bacteria will adapt under future climate change scenarios.”

For more information:
Pietro Ridone et al. Rapid evolution of flagellar ion selectivity in experimental populations of E. coli. scientific progress (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abq2492

Quote: Research Reveals How Bacteria Use Ancient Mechanisms to Self-Repair (November 23, 2022) https://phys.org/news/2022-11-uncovers-bacteria-ancient- Retrieved 11/24/2022 from mechanisms-self-repair.html

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