Home Science Two Black Holes Met by Chance, And It Created Something Never Seen Before : ScienceAlert

Two Black Holes Met by Chance, And It Created Something Never Seen Before : ScienceAlert

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Space-time ripples created by colliding Black Hole It has taught me a lot about these mysterious objects.

these are gravitational waves Encodes information about black holes. Their mass, the shape of the spirals pointing inward towards each other, their spin, their orientation, etc.

From this, scientists believe that most of the collisions we saw It was between black holes in a binary star system. The two black holes started out as a massive star binary that became a black hole together before spiraling and merging.

Of the approximately 90 mergers detected so far,, but one stands out as very peculiar. Her GW19052, detected in May 2019, sent a ripple of space-time like no other.

“Its morphology and explosion-like structure are very different from previous observations.” Astrophysicist Rossella Gamba says University of Jena, Germany.

she adds“GW190521 was initially analyzed as a merger of two rapidly rotating massive black holes approaching each other along roughly circular orbits, but its peculiar features have led us to suggest other possible interpretations. I did.”

especially, short sharp duration of gravitational waves The signal was difficult to explain.

gravitational waves actual merger It is made up of two black holes, like ripples of rock dropped into a pond. But they are also produced by binary inspirals, where strong gravitational interactions generate weak ripples as two black holes approach inexorably.

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“The shape and brevity (less than one-tenth of a second) of the signal associated with this event lead us to hypothesize that two black holes merged instantaneously. This fusion would occur in the absence of a spiral phase. Did.” Astronomer Alessandro Nagar explains of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics.

There are multiple ways to pair gravitationally interacting black holes.

The first is that the two have been together for a long time. That’s probably because baby stars formed from the same part of the molecular cloud in the universe.

The other is when two objects moving through space come close enough to pass each other, known as a dynamic encounter.

This is what Gamba and her colleagues thought could have happened in GW190521, and designed a simulation to test the hypothesis. They tweaked parameters such as orbits, spins, and masses to try to smash black hole pairs and recreate the oddities. gravitational waves A signal was detected in 2019.

Their result is that the two black holes didn’t start out as binary stars, but got caught in each other’s gravitational webs, traversed two wild and bizarre loops, and then collided with each other to form a single large black hole. suggests that it did. Black HoleAnd neither of the black holes in this scenario were spinning.

“By developing an accurate model using a combination of state-of-the-art analytical techniques and numerical simulations, the highly eccentric merger in this case explains the observations better than any other previously proposed hypothesis. I found out to do it.” Astronomer Matteo Breschi says of the University of Jena.

“Probability of error is 1:4,300!”

According to the team, this scenario is likely to occur in densely populated regions of space, such as star clusters, where such gravitational interactions are more likely.

This tracks previous findings on GW190521.One of the merger black holes is Measured at approximately 85x mass of the sun.

According to current models, black holes larger than 65 solar masses do not form from a single star.the only way we know Black Hole Its mass can be formed by a merger between two low-mass objects.

A study by Gamba and her colleagues found that the masses of the two black holes at the time of their collision were at about 81 and 52 solar masses. This is slightly lower than previous estimates, but her one of the black holes is still outside the collapsing formation path of a single star’s core.

It is still unclear whether our model requires fine-tuning, but hierarchical merging, where large structures are formed through the continual merging of small objects, Likely in a cluster environment There are many dense objects.

Dynamic encounters between black holes are thought to be fairly rare, gravitational waves The data collected so far by LIGO and Virgo seem to support this. However, just because it’s rare doesn’t mean it’s impossible. New research suggests that GW190521 may have been the first to be detected.

And the first means we can do a lot more in the next few years. gravitational waves The observatory is currently undergoing upgrades and maintenance, March 2023 for new observation runs. This time, his two detectors in LIGO in the United States and the Virgo detector in Italy are joined by his KAGRA in Japan for even more observational power.

More detections like GW190521 would be amazing.

This research natural astronomy.

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